At the time of publication, carrageenans are not permitted additives in wine although they are approved for food use. An outcome of this research is that the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) has submitted an application to Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) seeking to amend Food Standards Code – Standard 4.5.1 to approve the use of pectin/carrageenan in commercial Australian winemaking.
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Accentuated Cut Edges (ACE) maceration reduces skin particle size thereby increasing the rate of extraction of components from grape skins. Subsequently, the wine can be pressed earlier (PE) than usual, and the fermentation completed in a smaller tank to make PE-ACE wine. The technique optimises fruit characteristics and saves time, space and labour in the winery. ACE maceration was tested on five red wine grape varieties at six commercial wineries located in four Australian states. PEACE treated wines had similar phenolic composition and sensory scores to the untreated wines. ACE maceration has the potential to significantly improve processing efficiency, profitability and competitiveness in the global market.
Winery wastewater (WWW) samples containing Glycogen Accumulating Organisms (GAO) were analysed using NanoSIMS (nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry). The main objective of this study was to observe the effect of nitrogen addition on the carbon metabolism of WWW bacteria. Incubations with different ratios of stable isotope labelled substrates were performed prior to analyses. Images showing the intracellular 15N and 13C enrichment of GAO were obtained. Significant differences were observed in the 15N and 13C levels of GAO incubated with different carbon:nitrogen ratios.
Fiona Kerslake presented two posters entitled ‘UV spectra and chemometrics discriminate press fraction and variety of juice for sparkling wine’ and ‘Non-destructive process monitoring of sparkling wines with in-bottle near infrared scanning and chemometrics’ (Dr Bob Dambergs lead author) at the In Vino Analytica Scientia 2015 conference in Trento, Italy. This conference provided an excellent opportunity for Dr Kerslake to build new connections, both nationally and internationally, and strengthen existing relationships. The high level of wine chemistry presented both in oral presentations and posters provided an excellent opportunity for Dr Kerslake to keep abreast of new developments in this discipline and also to promote Australia’s research strength in this area. The number of Australian researchers that attended and presented research at this conference was also testament to Australia’s strong research capability.
Evaluating the viability of process sensor technologies for measurement of sugar levels during fermentation
A number of commercially available process sensors for monitoring Baume in wine fermentations were subjected to field trials during 2015. Results show that some sensors can be successfully applied in a process environment, but no single sensor technology tested can provide reliable and accurate Baume data for white and red ferments. Financial modelling shows that the implementation of in-line sensors could provide a payback period of nine months for very large wineries but up to three years for smaller wineries. Potential benefits of introducing these sensors include reduced labour resources, lower analytical costs, fewer quality downgrades and increased ferment tank capacity.
All objectives have been achieved and the Transitionary Activities are complete. Specifically; • extension activities were conducted through the AWRI Nodes, including enhancements to the Research to Practice module on Refrigeration with the addition of case studies developed by the Riverina Node; • a proof of principle metagenomics study was successfully completed, demonstrating the effect of winemaking intervention on the genetic diversity of wild wine fermentations; • work on the formation and fate of sulfidic off-aromas in bottled red wines has been completed, highlighting the potential to positively impact on wine quality through oxygen management in and copper additions to rotary fermenters; and • the acquisition of approved capital items and small capital items has been completed.
The Lean Guide offers a practical introduction to lean production concepts and techniques for Australian wineries. This guide will help wine businesses implement practices to improve their productivity, reduce their costs and improve their business resilience. During consultation with industry, the need for a simple guide to the lean technique was identified as one way of improving profitability in the wine sector. While some wineries have already sourced information about ‘Lean’ production principles, primarily through consultants or other sources, and then adapted the principles to their own circumstances, there is a view that many of these existing resources focus on the methods and language (e.g. jargon) rather than the outcomes, and this is barrier to uptake. The development of this Lean Guide is intended to provide the wine industry with a tool that will allow all scales of operation to understand adopt and benefit from the principles of ‘Lean’ manufacturing.
Australia is a geographically large and diverse country, with grape and wine producing regions situated in diverse climatic zones, and consequently, different regions express large differences in their Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) priorities. In addition, the extension and adoption messages for particular research outputs need to be tailored for the region concerned. For this reason, the AWRI established a network of regional nodes in order to address regional RD&E. priorities; the Riverina, Tasmania and Hunter Valley nodes being the subject of this report. The report covers the period from I November 2013 to 30 June 2014. The work reported, comprising Outputs and Activities largely directed by the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC), focuses on extension and facilitated adoption of technologies which had been previously developed, and on extending existing A WRI flavour research projects via the Tasmania node. As such, this period represented a strong opportunity to extend work to a wider Australian wine industry audience, and a total of 30 workshops and seminars were staged across four states, with each event strongly attended by industry personnel. This achieved or exceeded the project's Output targets.
A dramatic increase in wine production over the last two decades in Australia and other wine producing countries has led to the need for sustainable management of winery wastewater to meet environmental concerns. The end use of the winery wastewater is the most important factor to consider when deciding on treatment options. The best choice will include consideration of critical issues such as: chemical oxygen demand (COD), quality of the wastewater (including pH, Na and K levels) and Federal/State regulations, amongst others. Any treatment must be ‘fit for purpose’. If wastewater could be rapidly used for irrigation, only minimal treatment (e.g. dilution of salts by shandying the winery wastewater) may be required. However, if it is necessary to reduce the BOD/COD to control odour a balance needs to be found between an adequate level of treatment and storage of wastewater (that may cause an odour nuisance) versus the cheaper option of rapid disposal on the land through irrigation. Guideline values for key indicators of recycled winery wastewater quality for on-site and off-site disposal were developed during this investigation.
Recent projects investigating winery wastewater have identified a number of new technologies that may help to reduce or recycle wastewater and ensure wine is produced cleanly. An industry survey was performed to gather a list of potential technologies which might lead to cleaner production methods. In total, this approach covered approximately 70% of Australian production by volume.