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Factsheets & other resources

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Yield forecasting

  • Date: 2010-06-01
  • Author: Dunn, G.M

This factsheet discusses how to aassess forecasting performance, describes sources of variation in yield and outlines what is needed to make and evaluate best practice vineyard forecasts.

Total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

As TSS, TA and pH can be easily and objectively measured, they are commonly used as basic quality specifications related to maturity of grapes and therefore suitability for harvest.

Cropping levels

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

To the winemaker, maturity is determined not only by ‘sugar ripeness’ but also by ‘flavour ripeness’ of the berries. A range of components may be considered. The primary needs of wineries are supplies of grapes that have the potential to produce their intended wine styles. Within the same region there can be a range of yields from different growers that will all meet specifications. There are, however, what appear to be the optimum yield ranges for achieving an individual winery’s r e q u i r e m e n t s. For this reason, many grape purchasing agreements have upper tolerances for yield, although negotiation on optimal cropping levels and expected yields may be possible.

Colour in red grape varieties

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

In recent seasons, growers have been encouraged to undertake practices that will improve the intensity of colour of red winegrapes, especially the varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and some wineries have given incentives through their grape pricing. The main goal has been to raise regional colour performance (particularly in the inland irrigated regions) and to provide further scope for batching grapes. Wineries may have varying colour tolerances for different varieties.

Agrochemical residues

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

Use of spray diaries has been common practice for  some years now to help protect Australian wines from the risk of residue exceeding maximum residue limits (MRLs) for export and domestic markets. MRLs vary from one country to the next and for some markets they do not exist at all.

Contamination

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

Contamination of loads of grapes can come from many sources. In comparison to MOG, it mostly refers to loads that may be contaminated with soil, fuel, oil or other lubricants, non food grade materials, dilution with water, u n wanted additives or animal matter including insect pests (this latter may also be a component of a MOG assessment). Some contaminants are more detrimental to the resulting wine than others and some can be easily detected via distinctive odours, eg. fuels and oils.

Contaminants that are severe are not tolerated and can result in instant rejection.

Damaged berries

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

Many things can damage berries during ripening, including sunburn, excessive shrivelling, splitting, general berry breakdown, bird and insect damage. Damaged berries are assessed in the vineyard during routine inspections.

Diseases – Powdery mildew, downy mildew, botrytis and other moulds and rots

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

Diseases are detrimental to wine quality if they affect colour and flavour. They also can impart unpleasant taints. Monitoring of pests and diseases in the vineyard and assessment of damage or infection can minimise problems and enable notice to be given before arriving at the load assessment station.

Grower and winery expectations in grape production

  • Date: 2005-01-01
  • Author: Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture

A basic responsibility of growers of fresh produce, which includes wine grapes, is to abide by the code of Food Standards for Australia and New Zealand and deliver grapes in a ripe, clean and cool condition. In addition, a grape purchasing agreement between a grower and winery, or agent such as a broker, can include specifications concerning a number of parameters.

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